Imagine when your mind goes into a rollercoaster ride without your permission. The excitement of going up then might not be there in this situation. You might be confused about what I am talking about. Have you ever heard of bipolar disorder? There is a misconception that bipolar means dual personality, but it is not—bipolar means when an individual goes through mania and depression. The individual doesn’t even recognize what is going on with their personality or mood when mood swings. He/ she might appear to be happy, buying luxurious cars and cloth, then all of a sudden they may fall into depression.
Around 46 million people in the world have a form of bipolar disorder. Surveys show that on the first diagnosis, patients with bipolar disorder are frequently misdiagnosed, most often with a major depressive disorder. In certain cases, these patients may undergo inadequate medication that further aggravates the outcome, either by causing manic or mixed states or by increasing the mood loop. Incomplete history, and absence of patient insight, and the existence of clinical comorbidities, such as anxiety or opioid use conditions, are significant contributors to misdiagnosis. To avoid misdiagnosis, diligent monitoring for present and previous signs of mania or hypomania, as well as the close professional follow-up, can help. The effects of misdiagnosis can be profound. Patients may suffer a higher number of recurrences or more long-term episodes in the absence of appropriate medication. Not unexpectedly, all of these may have profound effects, as well as treatment costs, on patient functioning. Episodes of chronic mood can seriously affect the ability of patients to sustain relationships as well as schooling and work. In addition, long after treatment, the episodes may have permanent and systemic consequences-for instance, it may be harder to find employment for a patient who leaves jobs because exhaustion makes it hard to get to work on time, or because manic episodes lead to confrontation with colleagues or even legal intervention.
What is a Bipolar Disorder?
A psychiatric illness characterized by intense mood swings. An excessively elevated mood called mania may involve symptoms. Depression events may also contain them. Bipolar disorder is also known as bipolar syndrome (manic depression). People with bipolar disorder may have difficulty handling or maintaining relationships with daily life activities at school or work.
There’s no remedy, but there are several options available for care that can help relieve the symptoms.
Types of Bipolar Disorders
- Bipolar 1
- Other specified and undefined bipolar disorders and their associated disorders.
Bipolar disorders 1 and 2 are more prominent than other forms of bipolar disorder.
Bipolar 1 vs. Bipolar 2
Episodes of severe mood describe all forms of bipolar disorder. The peaks are referred to as manic episodes. Depressive periods are known as the lows. The major difference between bipolar 1 and bipolar 2 conditions lies in the severity caused by each type of manic episode.
There will be a complete depressive episode for a person with bipolar 1, while a person with bipolar 2 will undergo just a hypomanic episode (a less serious phase than a complete manic episode)
An individual with bipolar 1 may have a major depressive episode or may not have it, and a person with bipolar 2 may have a major depressive episode.
What exactly is Bipolar 1?
Bipolar1 is a type of psychological disorder. A person affected by bipolar I disorder must have had at least one manic episode in their lives. A manic episode, followed by an erratic behavior that disrupts life, is a time of abnormally elevated or irritable mood and high energy.
Many individuals with bipolar I disorder also suffer from periods of depression. Sometimes, between mania and depression, there is a cycling trend. “manic depression.”
Many individuals with bipolar I disorder will live normal lives in between periods of mania and depression.
Usually, manic episodes are characterized by the following:
- Exceptional energy-based energy
- In quietness
- Difficulty focusing
- Euphoria sentiments (extreme happiness)
- Risky attitudes
- Bad sleeping habits
What Is Bipolar II Disorder?
Bipolar II disorder is a class of mental illness, with moods cycling between high and low over time; bipolar II is equivalent to bipolar I disorder. However, the “up” moods never hit full-blown mania in bipolar II disorder. In bipolar II disorder, the less-intense high moods are called hypomanic episodes. There might be at least one hypomanic episode in a person affected by bipolar II disorder in their life. Many individuals with bipolar II disorder suffer from depressive episodes more frequently. This is from where the word “manic depression” originates.
What are Bipolar Disorder Symptoms?
Bipolar 1 disorder, as described above, causes mania and can cause depression, while hypomania and depression are caused by bipolar 2 disorder. Let’s read more about what they mean by these symptoms.
A manic episode is more than just a sense of elevated energy or being distracted. At the time of a manic episode, the mania is so severe that your everyday activities will interfere with it. It’s hard to redirect anyone into a calmer, more rational state in a psychotic episode. Some very unreasonable decisions can be made by people in the manic phase of bipolar disorder, such as investing huge sums of money that they can’t afford to spend. Despite being in a committed bond, they may also participate in high-risk activities, such as sexual indiscretions. If it is due to external factors, such as alcohol, medications, or another health disorder, an episode should not be formally considered psychotic.
A hypomanic episode is a phase of mania that is less serious than a full-blown manic episode. Although less serious than a manic episode, a hypomanic period is still an occurrence in which your behavior varies from your usual state. The discrepancies can be severe enough to feel that something is wrong with the people around you. Officially, whether it’s affected by narcotics or alcohol, a hypomanic episode is not considered hypomania.
In those with bipolar disorder, depressive symptoms are like those of someone who has clinical depression. Extended periods of depression and hopelessness can include them. In individuals you once enjoyed spending time with and the things you used to like, you may also feel a lack of interest.
Additional signs include:
- Difficulty focusing
- Modification of sleeping habits
- Alterations in eating habits
- Suicidal Feelings
What causes Bipolar Disorder?
Scientists have no idea what induces bipolar disorder. Among the key factors may be irregular anatomical features of the brain or an imbalance of certain brain chemicals. Bipolar illness, as with many psychiatric disorders, appears to occur in families. Your chance of having it is greater if you have a parent or a sibling with bipolar disorder. The quest for the genes that could be responsible for bipolar disorder continues. Researchers also agree that bipolar disorder can be caused by extreme stress, drug or alcohol misuse, or seriously disturbing events. Such experiences may include childhood violence or a loved one’s death.
How is Bipolar Disorder Diagnosed?
Bipolar disorder is normally diagnosed by a doctor or another mental health professional. A review of your medical history and any signs you have linked to mania and depression will include the diagnosis. A qualified practitioner can understand what questions to pose.
Bringing a companion or close friend with you during the doctor’s appointment can be very helpful. Your friend may be able to help you answer questions about actions that may not be easily or correctly answered by you. You can always start by asking your doctor if you have symptoms that sound like bipolar 1 or bipolar 2. If your symptoms are severe enough, your provider can refer you to a mental health specialist. The diagnostic phase can also require a blood test. There are no bipolar disorder signs in the blood, but a blood test and a thorough physical examination will help rule out other potential causes of your conduct.
Factors that can increase the risk of the first episode of developing bipolar disorder or function as a cause include:
- Getting a first-degree relative with bipolar disorder, like a parent or sibling,
- High-stress cycles, such as the death of a loved one or another stressful incident,
- Abuse of drugs or alcohol
What are the treatments for Bipolar Disorders?
A physician specializing in the treatment and diagnosis treatment of mental health issues (a psychiatrist) specializing in the treatment of bipolar and related conditions is best led by counseling. A recovery team that includes a counselor, a social worker, and a clinical nurse may be available.
A lifelong diagnosis is a bipolar disorder. Treatment is aimed at symptom control. Treatment can include, depending on your needs:
Medicinal: Sometimes, to stabilize your moods right away, you may need to begin taking medications.
Ongoing care: Even during times when you feel better, bipolar disorder needs lifelong care with medication. People who miss maintenance therapy are at high risk of symptom regression or mild mood changes, turning into full-blown mania or depression.
Care services: A day therapy program might be prescribed by your doctor. As you get symptoms under control, these services offer the help and therapy you need.
Treatment for drug abuse: You’ll still need substance abuse therapy if you have trouble with alcohol or narcotics. Otherwise, the management of bipolar disorder can be very complicated.
Hospitalisation: If you act dangerously, feel suicidal, or become disconnected from reality, your doctor can advise hospitalisation (psychotic). If you have a bipolar or major depressive episode, seeking medical care at a hospital will help keep you calm and healthy and stabilize your mood.
Medication and psychiatric intervention (psychotherapy) to control symptoms are the main therapies for bipolar disorder and can also provide education and support groups.
Bipolar disorder is often misdiagnosed. If bipolar disorder is treated with an antidepressant, the mania can become worse.
To treat bipolar disorder, a variety of drugs are used. The recommended drug forms and doses are focused on your individual symptoms.
Mood Stabilizers – Typically, to manage psychotic or hypomanic episodes, you would need mood-stabilizing drugs. Lithium, valproic acid, Divalproex, sodium carbamazepine, and lamotrigine are examples of mood stabilizers.
Lithium: In addition to mixtures of mania and depression simultaneously, this simple metal in pill form is particularly effective in regulating mania that causes classical euphoria. Lithium has been used to help with bipolar disorder for more than 60 years. It can take weeks for lithium to function fully, making it safer for maintenance therapy than for sudden manic episodes. Lithium blood levels and tests to assess the kidney and thyroid activity must be tracked to prevent side effects.
Valproate: It also helps to even out moods with this antiseizure drug. In an intense episode of mania, it works quicker than lithium. In order to avoid new episodes, “off label” is also often used. As a mood stabilizer that can be prescribed with the “loading dose” process, valproate allows the prospect of a substantial change in mood as early as four to five days, starting at a very high dose.
Some other antiseizure drugs, notably carbamazepine and lamotrigine. In the recovery or avoidance of mania or depression, it may have significance. Some antiseizure drugs, such as oxcarbazepine, are less well-established but are also often used experimentally to treat bipolar disorder.
Alprazolam, diazepam, and clonazepam are included in this class of medications, referred to as mild tranquilizers. They are often used for short-term management of acute mania-related symptoms such as anxiety or insomnia, but they won’t treat core mood symptoms such as euphoria or depression. They may also become habit-forming, so careful monitoring is required. It is necessary that you follow the advice of your doctor about medications and other lifestyle choices. It involves:
- Utilization of alcohol
- Usage of medicines
- Reducing tension
It can be particularly helpful to include your friends and family members in your care. It’s also useful to understand as much about bipolar disorder as you can. The more you are conscious of the disorder, the more you may feel in control as you adapt to life after diagnosis. You may be able to restore relationships that are strained. Educating people about the bipolar disorder will make them more conscious of previous negative events.